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戴卓尔夫人:一个残酷统治阶级的斗士死了

2013/04/11
柯林尼可斯
译者: 

责任主编:孙穷理

翻译:宋治德

【译按】本文译自“英国社会主义工人党”(Socialist Worker Party),2013年4月8日网页电子报。

英国官方对戴卓尔夫人(彩立方译作柴契尔夫人)之死的回应──当然包括媒体机构──企图将她吹捧成“大政治家”流芳百世。

那些记得戴卓尔夫人对煤矿工人──以及其他工人阶级社区──所作所为的人们,宁愿她为世人所铭记的是,就如诗人雪莱(Percy Bysshe Shelley)形容另一位保守党政治人物卡斯尔雷子爵(Lord Castlereagh)一样。雪莱在1819年彼德卢屠杀(Peterloo Massacre)之后,写道﹕“我在路上遇到了凶手,他有副卡斯尔雷的面具”(I met Murder on the way/He had a mask like Castlereagh )。(译註﹕这句出自雪莱的诗The Mask of Anarchy)

谋杀就是戴卓尔夫人的业务。有时谋杀是隐喻性的──对工业和社区。它仍然会摧毁人们的生活。

有时谋杀是真实的。

她监督着对爱尔兰进行的骯脏战争。戴卓尔夫人的冷酷无情,表现在她迫使爱尔兰共和军囚犯要绝食致死,因她拒不让步承认对方所要求的政治犯身份。

如果戴卓尔夫人不诉诸荒谬畸形的殖民地武力,那么阿根廷与英国合共907名士兵便不会在1982年的福克兰战争中被杀。她的遗产主导英国继续佔有马尔维纳斯群岛(Malvinas),毒害英国与阿根庭的关系。

戴卓尔夫人得意于战争。在1990年11月,当她的内阁最终决定撵走她时,她恳求继续担任首相直至即将到来反对伊拉克萨达姆.候赛因(彩立方译作萨达姆.海珊)的战争结束为止。

虽然戴卓尔夫人在道德上是可鄙的,但她或许称得上是英国最后的具有世界历史意义的政治领袖。她于1979年5月在一个重要的历史关头上任。

世界经济进入第二次大衰退的十年──清楚的是1950和1960年代的长期繁荣的真正结束。

相比过去繁荣年代,经济危机背后是资本的盈利率急剧下降。为了恢复盈利,需要加强对工人的剥削。但是,尤其是在英国,统治阶级遭遇腹背受敌。它面对着一个在繁荣时期,从工作场所强大的基层组织建立起来的具有良好组织性和战斗力的工人阶级。

1972-74年之间,在煤矿工人和码头工人的带领下,英国工人运动将戴卓尔夫人的保守党前任领导希思(Ted Heath)拉下台。1978-79年工人阶级要求加薪的反抗,“不满的冬季”粉碎希思之后工党提出的社会契约,显示工人运动的持久强度。

戴卓尔夫人在1979年赢得大选之前,已经自诩为“铁娘子”,代表相比在经济繁荣时期的统治阶级常见的政治更为强硬及好斗。她挖掘出在1930年代大萧条已被埋葬的自由市场的正统观念。

比起任何其他主要的资本主义政治人物,戴卓尔夫人所倡导的率先被称为新自由主义。她很快就有一个非常强大的盟友,新右翼共和党人的美国总统列根(彩立方译作雷根)。

而列根面对的是一个不那么强大的工人运动,当他在1981年上任时,他已受益于美国联邦储备委员会主席保罗.沃尔克(Paul Volcker),在1979年10月实施的政策引致严重衰退所带来的影响。

戴卓尔夫人和她的谄媚者喜欢赞美她的勇气。事实上,尤其是她在唐宁街首相府的早期年代,她小心翼翼,经常避免过早对抗而引起强大工人阶级的反应。

她享有一个巨大的优势,承继她前任的工党首相哈罗德.威尔逊(Harold Wilson)和之后的詹姆斯.卡拉汉(Jim Callaghan)带来的社会契约。社会契约最终失败,但是它成功将工作场所日益官僚化的工会代表整合到与资方管理层和国家的合作。

这意味着,例如,英国利兰(Leyland)汽车大公司的老闆开始能够打击这些最有力的工作场所工会代表。

德里克.罗宾逊(Derek Robinson),英国伯明翰长桥(Longbridge)工厂的工会召集人,发觉自己被切断与工作间的联繫和被资方成功迫害。

这同时也意味着本位主义胜过团结。

这就令戴卓尔夫人更容易孤立在1984-85年煤矿工人史诗般的大罢工。

但她是幸运的。如果阿根庭的军械工将信管正确地放在炮弹上,大多数英国战舰将会葬身南大西洋的海底,戴卓尔夫人就不得不在羞辱下辞职。

就她的政敌而言,她也同样是幸运的。这是真实的,她的工党对手──起初是迈克尔.富特(Michael Foot)和之后的尼尔.金诺克(Neil Kinnock)在表面热情澎湃的修辞底下,隐藏着日益增长的右翼政治。

最重要是,这是真实的,工会领导──他们的永恆耻辱──允许在煤矿社区的男男女女独自战斗了一年。武装的警察队伍佔据矿井村庄和戴卓尔夫人的亲信组织工贼工会,绝望和艰困削弱了矿工们的战斗意志。

但她仍然有可能被击败的时刻──正是在1984年7月,当有组织的工贼行动激起全国码头工人的罢工,之后又在同一年秋天,当矿工代表(监事)扬言要罢工。

在两个场合上,工会官僚到来救了她。

在这场胜利之后,戴卓尔夫人寻求更彻底地努力重塑英国市场的佔有性个人主义。

到了1980年代末,她和她财政大臣奈杰尔.劳森(Nigel Lawson)策划制定在新自由主义年代首个以金融泡沫推动繁荣的政策。

但是,到最终,戴卓尔夫人自己贪功致败。自负的她,在1989-90年实施人头税,从亿万富豪到贫民的每个人都徵收相同的税额给当地政府。

不知从哪儿来个社会大爆炸──伦敦自1930年代以来出现最大的骚乱和有1400万群众参与拒绝交税运动。

最终,为求自保的保守党被迫将戴卓尔夫人从她的地堡逐出去和取消人头税。

这是戴卓尔夫人首相任期内的最重要一课。

或许她死后,统治阶级比她生前发起对福利国家的任何攻击会更大。

对戴卓尔夫人的阶级雪耻的最好方式,就是建立一个更强大的社会运动以打垮联合政府,并且埋葬她所主张的一切甚至比她的棺材所躺还要深的地底之下。

原文网址连结

回应

The Mask of Anarchy
http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/poetryperformance/shelley/poem3/shelle...
I

As I lay asleep in Italy
There came a voice from over the Sea
And with great power it forth led me
To walk in the visions of Poesy.

II

I met Murder on the way -
He had a mask like Castlereagh -
Very smooth he looked, yet grim;
Seven blood-hounds followed him:

III

All were fat; and well they might
Be in admirable plight,
For one by one, and two by two,
He tossed the human hearts to chew
Which from his wide cloak he drew.

IV

Next came Fraud, and he had on,
Like Eldon, an ermined gown;
His big tears, for he wept well,
Turned to mill-stones as they fell.

V

And the little children, who
Round his feet played to and fro,
Thinking every tear a gem,
Had their brains knocked out by them.

VI

Clothed with the Bible, as with light,
And the shadows of the night,
Like Sidmouth, next, Hypocrisy
On a crocodile rode by.

VII

And many more Destructions played
In this ghastly masquerade,
All disguised, even to the eyes,
Like Bishops, lawyers, peers, or spies.

VIII

Last came Anarchy: he rode
On a white horse, splashed with blood;
He was pale even to the lips,
Like Death in the Apocalypse.

IX

And he wore a kingly crown;
And in his grasp a sceptre shone;
On his brow this mark I saw -
'I AM GOD, AND KING, AND LAW!'

X

With a pace stately and fast,
Over English land he passed,
Trampling to a mire of blood
The adoring multitude,

XI

And a mighty troop around,
With their trampling shook the ground,
Waving each a bloody sword,
For the service of their Lord.

XII

And with glorious triumph, they
Rode through England proud and gay,
Drunk as with intoxication
Of the wine of desolation.

XIII

O'er fields and towns, from sea to sea,
Passed the Pageant swift and free,
Tearing up, and trampling down;
Till they came to London town.

XIV

And each dweller, panic-stricken,
Felt his heart with terror sicken
Hearing the tempestuous cry
Of the triumph of Anarchy.

XV

For with pomp to meet him came,
Clothed in arms like blood and flame,
The hired murderers, who did sing
'Thou art God, and Law, and King.

XVI

'We have waited, weak and lone
For thy coming, Mighty One!
Our purses are empty, our swords are cold,
Give us glory, and blood, and gold.'

XVII

Lawyers and priests, a motley crowd,
To the earth their pale brows bowed;
Like a bad prayer not over loud
Whispering - 'Thou art Law and God.' -

XVIII

Then all cried with one accord,
'Thou art King, and God and Lord;
Anarchy, to thee we bow,
Be thy name made holy now!'

XIX

And Anarchy, the Skeleton,
Bowed and grinned to every one,
As well as if his education
Had cost ten millions to the nation.

XX

For he knew the Palaces
Of our Kings were rightly his;
His the sceptre, crown and globe,
And the gold-inwoven robe.

XXI

So he sent his slaves before
To seize upon the Bank and Tower,
And was proceeding with intent
To meet his pensioned Parliament

XXII

When one fled past, a maniac maid,
And her name was Hope, she said:
But she looked more like Despair,
And she cried out in the air:

XXIII

'My father Time is weak and gray
With waiting for a better day;
See how idiot-like he stands,
Fumbling with his palsied hands!

XXIV

‘He has had child after child,
And the dust of death is piled
Over every one but me -
Misery, oh, Misery!'

XXV

Then she lay down in the street,
Right before the horses' feet,
Expecting, with a patient eye,
Murder, Fraud, and Anarchy.

XXVI

When between her and her foes
A mist, a light, an image rose,
Small at first, and weak and frail
Like the vapour of a vale:

XXVII

Till as clouds grow on the blast,
Like tower-crowned giants striding fast,
And glare with lightnings as they fly,
And speak in thunder to the sky

XXVIII

It grew - a Shape arrayed in mail
Brighter than the viper's scale,
And upborne on wings whose grain
Was as the light of sunny rain.

XXIX

On its helm, seen far away,
A planet, like the Morning's, lay;
And those plumes its light rained through
Like a shower of crimson dew.

XXX

With step as soft as wind it passed,
O'er the heads of men - so fast
That they knew the presence there,
And looked, - but all was empty air.

XXXI

As flowers beneath May's footstep waken,
As stars from Night's loose hair are shaken,
As waves arise when loud winds call,
Thoughts sprung where'er that step did fall.

XXXII

And the prostrate multitude
Looked - and ankle-deep in blood,
Hope, that maiden most serene,
Was walking with a quiet mien:

XXXIII

And Anarchy, the ghastly birth,
Lay dead earth upon the earth;
The Horse of Death tameless as wind
Fled, and with his hoofs did grind
To dust the murderers thronged behind.

XXXIV

A rushing light of clouds and splendour,
A sense awakening and yet tender
Was heard and felt - and at its close
These words of joy and fear arose

XXXV

As if their own indignant Earth
Which gave the sons of England birth
Had felt their blood upon her brow,
And shuddering with a mother's throe

XXXVI

Had turnèd every drop of blood
By which her face had been bedewed
To an accent unwithstood, -
As if her heart had cried aloud:

XXXVII

'Men of England, heirs of Glory,
Heroes of unwritten story,
Nurslings of one mighty Mother,
Hopes of her, and one another;

XXXVIII

'Rise like Lions after slumber
In unvanquishable number,
Shake your chains to earth like dew
Which in sleep had fallen on you -
Ye are many - they are few.’

Interpretation by Aviva Dautch
'The Mask of Anarchy' is an ethical conundrum. It was inspired by the 'Peterloo Massacre' on the 16th August 1819. Tens of thousands of protestors gathered in St. Peter’s Fields near Manchester to demand parliamentary reform but were charged by the sabre-wielding cavalry. Several died, hundreds were injured, and the immediate result was not reform but an increasing crack-down by the government. Shelley’s response was to write a ballad, now more often associated with love songs.

While I admire the skill and spirit of the poem and I am, in principle, definitely on the same side as the poem’s narrator, there is something about it that makes me slightly uncomfortable. Perhaps it is that the poet seems as certain of his own ‘rightness’ as of the ‘wrongness’ of those he’s condemning and 'The Mask of Anarchy' deliberately sets out to convince others of this. All is black and white, ‘Misery’ or ‘Hope’. There is a place for this in the rhetoric of power, but when writing my own political poems (and they’re the hardest thing to write) I tend to try and untangle the complications of a situation rather than elide them; to highlight doubts and uncertainties rather than proclaim truths; to self-reflexively be aware of my own biases and limitations. This could be a product of the time of writing, of gender, of the difference in situation between us. But Matthew Arnold condemned Shelley for an inability to step outside himself, and I have a sneaking suspicion that Arnold was right.

Aviva Dautch is an emerging poet whose work has been published in magazines and anthologies in the UK and USA, including Poetry Review, Modern Poetry in Translation, Agenda: Broadsheet 10, The Long Poem and Poetica. She also works as a freelance museum educator and teaches creative writing and English Language and Literature workshops at the British Library.

dear Aviva, I like your comment on Shelley's poem, your multiple reflections are appreciated in current society, whereas it tended to be weak in Shelley time. Wish you well and successful.

对戴卓尔夫人的阶级雪耻的最好方式,就是建立一个更强大的社会运动以打垮联合政府,并且埋葬她所主张的一切甚至比她的棺材所躺还要深的地底之下。